Skip to Main Content
Members:   Log In Sign Up
Text:  A  A  A

2004/5 Index 2006/7
Jul Aug Sep
Oct Nov Dec
Jan Feb Mar
Apr May Jun
ToffeeWeb Season Diary
Season 2005-06

Navigate to previous months and seasons using the calendar (right).


 February 2006

News Headlines & Features

Clean sheet for Ruddy in Reserves
27 Feb - After an early fumble, John Ruddy did a fine job in the Everton goal for a very young Reserves / Youth Academy Under-21 side that held their more illustrious counterparts from Birmingham to a creditable 0-0 draw on Monday night.  Victor Anichebe was leading the attack for Everton in the Barclays Premiership Reserve League North encounter but had to come off with an eye injury.

Undone by two very good goals
25 Feb - With four players supspended and stand-in goalie Sander Westerveld debuting, passionate Evertonains will be disappointed to have lost this game.  Everton looked well capable of winning it, playing some good football and creating a number of serious chances before half-time that on another occasion would have sewn things up.  Arteta's free-kick in particular produced a superb save from Given.  But they paid the price in the second half, and had no answer to two well-crafted goals finished off by Noberto Solano, who blatantly shoved Valente out of the way to convert the first and bent home a beautiful second. Match reports by Lyndon Lloyd and Paul Traill.

Move for Poom goes West...
22 Feb - Ex-Liverpool goalkeeper, Sander Westerveld, will tomorrow sign a short term deal, bringing him to Goodison Park. With both Nigel Martyn and Richard Wright out injured, not forgetting Iain Turner about to serve a one match ban, manager David Moyes has been keen to sign an experienced goalkeeper to relieve the pressure placed on John Ruddy. No doubt the signing of Francis Jeffers' old mate will raise one or two Evertonian eyebrows!

Sit Down and Shut Up!
22 Feb - In a powerful and persuasively penned article written in response to the "Hidding in the shadow of Hillsborough" piece we were asked to publicise the other day, Steve Guy blows away many of the dewy-eyed myths surrounding this ill-advised campaign to turn the clock back. He has plenty of memories of life on the terraces, and makes it very clear why he has no wish to see them return. It's prompted some interesting responses from Amamda Matthews, who wrote the original article, and our own occasional commentor, Peter Fearon.

Poom expected this week
21 Feb - Martin Poom is expected to join Everton at some point this week on an emergency one-month loan allowed by the Premier League due to the exceptional circumstances created by injuries to Nigel Martyn and Richard Wright both of whom will be out of action for some weeks. David Moyes has apparently elected to take advantage of the arrangement rather than trust the young hands of John Ruddy (who plays in goal for the reserves tonight), or Iain Turner who misses the Newcastle game while he serves a one-match suspension for the unjustified red card he received against Blackburn.

Player of the Month: January
19 Feb - Cast your mind back to the summer during a time of frenzied transfer activity, when it looked as though Leon Osman was not going to have his contract renewed.  He was rescued from a rumoured switch to Portsmouth when David Moyes decided he was worth holding onto.  And how the diminutive midfielder-cum-striker has repaid that faith so far in 2006, turning in some impressive performances and chipping in with vital goals as the Blues' fortunes took a dramatic turn for the better.

Catching up on the deficits
18 Feb - As you would expect from Everton's recent unbeaten run in the league, with six wins in the last seven, this has had a positive effect on the Season Comparison that Steve Flanagan has put together for us.  We still have some way to go to match the home form of last season, but we are almost there with the away form.  And regarding the much talked about decline in attendances, the deficit at away games is three times that at Goodison Park, showing a smaller decline in local support from long-suffering Evertonians, with price increases and season-ticket displacement for corporate facilities probably a factor.

Stadium decision by end of the year
17 Feb - In talking with the local group Downtown Liverpool in Business, Keith Wyness last night promised a "a big move forward on something" by the end of the year, and he effectively ruled out redevelopment of Goodison Park, or sharing a new stadium with Liverpool FC.  And following on from the D&T Top 20 success, he gave fans a new bragging straw to cling to: "We are a different club compared with a year or so ago. We think the bank would probably lend money to us rather than the team across the park."

The Sky TV perception confirmed
15 Feb - After painstaking and detailed research work unequaled anywhere else on the web, our statistician Stephen Flanagan has compilied a unique table of Premiership team performance records under the glaring lights of the Sky TV cameras.  Since football was created by Sky with the formation the Premiership, Evertonians have often felt hard-done-by in terms of unfortunate exposure and poor results before the critical audience of armchair fans across the nation and beyond.  Finally, the facts are made public here on ToffeeWeb for the first time. And they confirm our fears.  Note: this 31kB .pdf file is exclusive copyrighted material. Do not use without express written consent of the author, Stephen Flanagan.

Blues apply for Intertoto option
14 Feb - Everton have kept their European options open by applying for entry to the Intertoto Cup. They will be England's representative in the competition if they finish as the highest applying club outside the regular European qualification places. CEO Keith Wyness explains that the new format of the competition where the English representative would be required to play just one two-legged tie before entering the second qualifying round of the UEFA Cup was the biggest motivator.

Everton in new stadium talks
13 Feb - Everton are discussing the possibility of working with Peel Holdings to get a new stadium built. Peel Holdings has recently acquired the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company and all its land holdings, which include a promising site at Switch Island, Maghull, and are to prepare a feasibility study. Since Everton lack the financial resources to fund a new stadium, one possibility being considered is a lease scheme that will allow the club to acquire the stadium over the long term... just don't call it a 'reverse mortgage'!

Ten-Man Blues' Heroic Stand
11 Feb - Iain Turner's home debut turned to disaster after just 8 minutes when, following a mix-up with Alan Stubbs, he was sent off for handling outside the area.  But David Moyes's irrepressible charges went on to not only score but put in a heroic stand and grind out another 1-0 win against all the odds.  James McFadden started up front and should have opened the scoring after 7 minutes but he went for power and only found the bar with the goal gaping.  A minute later Turner was off and young John Ruddy was on but 10 mins before the break, Arteta swung in a free kick and Beattie planted a header past Friedel. Blackburn probed but Ruddy twice denied them while Everton had three "goals" chalked off for infringements as they held firm.  Match Report from Paul Traill

Moyes: manager of the month
10 Feb - The Manager of the Month award David Moyes deservedly won by guiding Everton to a sequence of unbeaten games that stretched through January seems to have already started working its traditional spells a day or two before it was officially announced. Richard Wright's ridiculous accident, and the ensuing humbling by rampant Chelsea have taken some of the shine off the accolade already.

An object lesson in scoring goals
8 Feb - Everton went into their second successive FA Cup replay looking to cause a major upset with victory over runaway Premiership leaders, Chelsea, but it was not to be as three first-half goals sewed this one up with time to spare.  Everton had tried to play some decent fooball but were undone by clinical stikes from Robben and Crespo, and a silly penalty converted by Lampard.  The Toffees stirred breifly in the scond half, Arteta converting a penalty thanks to a Huth handball, but Chelsea waltzed up the other end and Terry emphatically banged in the fourth to underline a vast difference in class which was all but invisible 10 days ago at Goodson Park.

Carsley getting closer to fitness
7 Feb - Lee Carsley was the man among boys this afternoon as Everton Reserves were relegated to playing their home game in front of a handful of people on the touchline at Netherton current home of the Youth Academy portakabins. It was appropriate in many ways because most of the so-called reserves playing were youngsters from the Academy, with John-Paul Kissock impressing once again. Carsley played just the first half of a game which the lads won through a first-half goal from defender Chritian Seargeant.

The Glass is Half Full
6 Feb - Mark Langley takes a rosily optimistic view of Everton's prospects for the rest of the season, happily dismissing concerns about the players who failed to arrive during the January transfer window and whetting his lips at thought of Andy van der Meyde [who?] whipping crosses in for Duncan Ferguson [uh!!?!] to power home. Yes, I kinda lost faith in the Half-Full scenario at that point... but it's nice to see some people can recognize the achievements of David Moyes and his threadbare squad in getting Everton to the brink of the Premiership Top Ten whan all anyone could do previously was moan "where are the next points coming from?"

Blues' unbelievable form continues with another win
4 Feb - A fortuitous 7th-minute goal by David Weir was enough to extend Everton's terrific unbeaten run to 9 games as City's frustrations ended with Steven Jordan being sent off in the dying minutes. Led by the effervescent Leon Osman, the Blues burst out of the gates and the diminutive midfielder-cum-striker bounced a shot off the crossbar inside 90 seconds. Five minutes later, though, the Blues were ahead. Mikel Arteta swung in a corner, David Weir missed it and when Dunne headed off the line, it ricocheted off Weir and into the net. Darius Vassell and Georgios Samaras both headed wide but the Blues were, on the whole, comfortable to ride out the game and secure another 3 points. Read Paul Traill's Match Report.

Make Yourself Heard
3 Feb - Our webforum has been online for nearly six months and has grown into one of the largest and most active Everton communities on the Internet. Today we're relaunching it, complete with brand spanking new forum software, its own server and all the regulars guaranteed to be there already. Have your say on Everton and discuss anything you have on your mind.

Der ball ist Rund
3 Feb - ON Saturday we have visitors from Manchester, 41 years ago this week since a club from that city played Everton at Goodison Park in the Inter Cities Fairs Cup. The first leg of this third-round tie had been a 1-1 draw at Old Trafford. What happened in the second leg in February 1965? Read this excerpt from Mike Owen's book - Der ball ist Rund: Everton in Europe.

''We're NOT skint,'' says Moyes
2 Feb - In an unprecedented reaction to the insane clamouring of Everton fans who are absolutely convinced they have been lied to by David Moyes and the current Goodison regime, the Everton Manager addresses this important and direct statement to all Evertonians, from the Official Website. "The failure to bring anybody in was certainly not for the lack of trying nor was it due to a lack of funds." Read that slowly and see if you can still call him a liar!

Johnson's right-hand man
2 Feb - To take our minds off current concerns amidst Everton's remarkable 8-match unbeaten run, Clifford Finch has popped up in the media and reminisces about some of the tumultuous happenings when he was a prominent Board member who worked very closely with former Chairman, Peter Johnson. He lets go of some interesting snippets, like the fact that the much-vaunted Kings Dock feasibility study was doomed from the start. Is someone re-writing history for us, yet again?


Snippets & Rumours

More Great Expectations?
28 Feb - All the pre-VDM hype paid off last time for five games and four wins so let's get ready to rumble again... Andy van der Meyde is about to resume full training after missing three months with a ruptured thigh muscle.

Elbow on Cahill may get ban
27 Feb - Although referee Graham Poll missed it, Cellestine Babayaro's elbow on Tim Cahill may get the Newcastle player banned after it was highlighted by TV cameras,

Moyes rues missed chances
27 Feb - David Moyes rued the chances Everton missed in teh first half, knowing that if they had scored then, they could have won the game.

International action this week
27 Feb - A number of Everton players will be participating at International level for their respective countries this week, including Nuno Valente, who has been selected for Portugal.

Rooney wins his first silverware
26 Feb - After moving with some acrimony to Manchester United 18 months ago in his quest for glory, Wayne Rooney finally secured some silverware, winning the Carling League Cup in Cardiff today. Everton's cut of the winnings: nowt.

Neville and the England squad
26 Feb - Phil Neville is conspicuously absent from Sven Goran-Eriksson's latest England selection for the friendly against Uruguay on Wednesday.

Decisions, decisions...
26 Feb - Jim Hourigan provides a detailed tactical and strategic analysis of Everton, the current football team, and identifies the issues that he believes are holding us back.

The boys played well
25 Feb - David Moyes was generally positive about the performance his charges produced at Newcastle, despite the scoreline.

Toffees Dublin-bound!
24 Feb - David Moyes will bring his threadbare Everton squad over to Dublin for a friendly fixture, now confirmed, against Bohemians on April 25 next, at Dalymount Park, with a 7.30pm kick off. "We're all goin' on a European tour...."

Didn't he know this would happen?
24 Feb - David Moyes laments the small size of his Everton squad, claiming there are only 12 or 13 outfield players traveling to Newcastle... and then the article goes on to name 14 in the squad of 16. Isn't that why we have Reserves???

Beattie looking to stake a claim?
24 Feb - It's "Let's talk up Beattie" time for you-know-who in the Liverpool Echo...  But thankfully Beattie himself is somewhat more grounded: "I'm doing a little bit better now." and there's still room for improvement.

Next five games are crucial
24 Feb - Joseph Yobo returns from a month in Egypt and Nigeria's advance to the semi-finals of the African Nations Cup.  But nobody told him we weren't mentioning the E-word...  One game at a time, Joe!

Goalie knows fans will not forget
24 Feb - Sander Westerveld know the Everton fans he steps out in front of tomorrow will have long memories that include his entertaining spat with Francis Jeffers, which ended with them both getting sent off in the last Anfield derby Everton won.

Carney makes International debut
24 Feb - David Carney played for a while in Everton's academy but was released in 2003 and moved back to his native Australia whom he appeared for in their first Asian Cup foray, as an 82nd-minute sub in a 3-1 win over Bahrain.

Westerveld to start on Saturday
23 Feb - David Moyes has confirmed that Sander Westerveld will start on Saturday in place of John Ruddy, who is too inexperienced to face the challenge of Newcastle Utd.  Moyes also explains why the deal for Poom fell through.

Li Tie plays again for China
22 Feb - Li Tie turned out for China in an Asian Cup Qualifying match against Palestine, with former Everton player Li Weifeng getting on the scoresheet in a 2-0 win.

Reserves crash to the Mancs
21 Feb - Everton Reserves crashed to their Manchester United in a 4-1 humbling this evening in Southport, with John Ruddy goal, Thordur Ingason on the bench, Carlsey and Naysmith getting some good playing time.

The Blues are back in town
21 Feb - The Everton senior squad returned from their sojourns in Miami, Florida, back to regular training at Bellefield in preparation for the upcoming trip to Newcastle.

Martyn will need another month
20 Feb - Nigel Martyn will need another month to recover from an operation last week on his injured ankle.  He is targeting the Anfield derby on 25 March for his rerturn to fitness.

Naysmith recalled for Scotland
20 Feb - Gary Naysmith has been included in Walter Smith's Scotland squad for the upcaming friendly against Switzerland on 1 March, despite his lack of match fitness.  Weir and McFadden are also selected.

Hiding in the shadow of Hillsboro
20 Feb - Some of you may be interested in supporting this campaign. It's the latest from the Stand Up Sit Down group who want to bring standing on terraces back to the Premiership.

Break: good or bad?
19 Feb - We always seem to get this rather meaningless discussion about whether a break in the fixture list is a good thing ("recharguing batteries", as Arteta says here) or a bad thing when you are on a roll ("disrupting momentum"). Guess we'll find out next Saturday!

Hibbert rues upcoming suspension
18 Feb - Tony Hibbert admits he will be "gutted" when he has to sit out the trip to Newcastle next Saturday through suspension.

Moyes explains Intertoto application
17 Feb - David Moyes has explaqined his reasoning behind Everton's apoplication for a place in this summer's revamped Intertotop competion, which potentially provides a path to the Uefa Cup via just one two-legged tie.

FA ask Beattie about comments
17 Feb - James Beattie's comments about the officials at the Blackburn game were apparently "taken out of context" from a radio interview.  The FA have written asking for the player's observations...

Ignoring the signs...
17 Feb - The Magazine section pokes a bit of fun at poor Richard Wright for you know what...

Reserves lose mini-derby
16 Feb - James Harris was red-carded for Everton Reserves in a feisty encounter with their Liverpool counterparts that Everton then lost by a single goal.

Reserves keeper may fit the bill
16 Feb - Everton recently signed Iceland's young keeper Thordur Ingason, who gets to run out against Liverpool's second string tonight at Southport. David Moyes may well be looking for him to warm the bench at Newcastle on the 25th as there is no further word on the move to bring in Mart Poom.

McFadden set to sign new deal
16 Feb - James McFadden is set to extend his time with Everton in a renegotiated extension of his contract that will now run through June 2009.

Li Tie to play again for China
15 Feb - Li Tie, who used to play for Everton (okay, he still does... and yet he doesn't) will play again for China in the Asian Cup qualifier against Palestine on Sunday.  He is carrying an ankle injury (that presumably prevents him playing for Everton), however, "his condition is fine and he can be fit enough to play Sunday's game."  Go figure!

Erm... we're rich?
15 Feb - As announced triumphantly at the AGM late last year, Everton have made the Deloitte Football Money League listing of the world's top 20 richest clubs, coming in at 18th with revenue totalling 60m last year. The 34% increase in turnover is due to increased prize money, television revenue and commercial activity. Success breeds success, as they say.

Miami Splice?
14 Feb - Most of the Everton senior squad are on a recuperative trip to Miami, Florida, in an effort to further improve bonding and team spirit ahead of a final push to finish well in the league.

Peel Holdings only half the story
14 Feb - As seems usual with any local story about a new stadium for Everton, our local press were only telling half the story. Everton are apparently not too interested in the Switch Island site because it is green belt outside the City of Liverpool.

4-0 to The Everton
14 Feb - Evertonians are still bursting with pride over the way the team (with the raucous help of the fans) overcame all the odds against Blackburn. Derek Wadeson relives some of the game's memories.

Everton Blogs
14 Feb - We really should have a page listing the various Everton Blogs.  The latest is at the Real Life News site, and is penned by Ian Marshall's Double.  Please tell us of any more you come across. *Link fixed*

Hughes gets loan opportunity
13 Feb - Everton's Reserve captain, Mark Hughes, has been allowed out on a month's loan to Stockport County. He will link up with ex-Blue Michael Symes who is also on loan at Edgeley Park from Macclesfield Town.

Everton can sign loan keeper
13 Feb - The Premier League have granted Everton permission to sign a keeper on loan, subject to a review of medical reports on the injuries of Martyn and Wright.

The Tribes within The Tribe
13 Feb - Laurent Corneille provides some guidance for those befuddled by the contrasting fortunes of Everton under the management of David Moyes.

Wright out for up to six weeks
13 Feb - Richard Wright may be out for up to six weeks given the extent of the damage to his ankle.

Moyes may have to use Woods
13 Feb - David Moyes fears he may be forced to re-register Everton goalkeeping coach Chris Woods to provde cover for John Ruddy, the only gooalie he will have available for the game at Newcastle.

Iversen joins Rosenborg
12 Feb - Steffen Iversen has joined Rosenborg after four months as a free agent. The former Spurs striker signed on at the Norwegian club after spending a couple of days on trial at Everton. [link in Norwegian]

Lineker says red was wrong
12 Feb - Gary Lineker has pointed out on MotD that Iain Turner should not have been sent off for handling the ball outside his area since it did not deny Blackburn a goalscoring opportunity.

Liverpool exile singing the blues
11 Feb - Florent Sinama Pongole may have endeared himself to Evertonians by voicing these perceptions about the City of Liverpool's fanbase and allegiances.

One-match ban for Turner
11 Feb - Iain Turner's innocuous handball incident should result in only a one-game ban for the unfortunate young keeper.  Fifth yellow cards for Hibbert and Neville mean they will also miss the Newcastle match.

Player of the Month: January
10 Feb - Vote for your pick of the Everton squad after a highly successful month.

Uefa impressed by EFPF
10 Feb - The concept of Everton Former Players' Foundation, a.k.a. BlueBlood, the first charity of its kind in world football, has caught the imagination of Uefa who hope to institute a similar scheme themselves somewhere down the line.

Ferguson hit with hefty ban
10 Feb - Duncan Ferguson has had his suspension extended to seven matches after the FA hit him with an extra four-game ban for violent conduct at the JJB Stadium last week. He was sent off for punching Paul Scharner and then tangled with Pascal Chimbonda as he left the field.

Goals, goals, give me goals
9 Feb - We have heard inumerable pleas for the ellusive stirker that last night's goalfest once again underlined, but this one from Mick Stanley is a little different, using some impressive stats to make the point all too clearly. Read this response from Brian Mills.

Turner will get another chance
8 Feb - After Richard Wright twisted his ankle on a sign that quite clearly said "do not warm up in this goalmouth" and crocked himself ahead of the Cup replay at Stamford Bridge, Iain Turner will likely get another runout against Blackburn on Saturday.

Osman back on form
8 Feb - Leon Osman feels he is now back on top form after struggling during the first half of the season, and is relishing tonight's FA Cup replay.

Yobo and Nigeria fall in semis
7 Feb - Joseph Yobo captained Nigeria to a narrow defeat by the Ivory Coast in the African Cup of Nations semi-final today. Chelsea striker, Didier Drogba, whom Yobo would have been facing this week in the FA Cup replay were it not their international commitments in Egypt, scored the only goal. Joe will be heading back to Merseyside after the third-placed playoff later this week.

No truth in Iversen rumours
7 Feb - David Moyes has dismissed widely disemminated reports that he is about to sign out-of-contract Norwegian striker Steffen Iversen... although the player is apparently "in for a day or two".

Carsley in for the Reserves
7 Feb - Lee Carsley gets another run out for Everton Reserves this afternoon as they take on Middlesbrough.

Form for Formation
7 Feb - Steve McBride provides a perceptive analysis of the tactical variations David Moyes has employed, which underlie Everton's current unbeaten run.

Amended poll question
7 Feb - The original choices available in our latest poll question about the January transfer window were a little restrictive so we've added another choice. If you have already voted, feel free to re-submit your vote.

When you have to scrap...
6 Feb - Sorry we have been a bit slow getting Paul Traill's Match Report up from the weekend... but here it is.

Hopkins returns from loan spell
6 Feb - Everton Academy striker, Paul Hopkins, has returned from a month's loan at Darlington.

Did we win or lose?
6 Feb - Derek Wadeson is another fan taking a more positive read on current happenings at Everton.

No beautiful football for Per
5 Feb - Reading between the lines, it seems Per Krldrup didn't like being told to wellie the ball aimlessly up field or into Row Z. We're just not ready for that sort of defensive finesse...

'Not a straight line'
5 Feb - After a massive deluge of criticsm for David Moyes over his reticence in the transfer market, this note of praise for the manager from Peter Moore makes a welcome change.

Top of the form league
4 Feb - By winning five of their last six games, Everton have moved to the top of the Current Form league.

Nigeria into the semis
4 Feb - Joseph Yobo missed the first spot kick in the decisive penalty shoot-out but the Super Eagles went on to the semi-finals of the African Cup of Nations ahead of Tunisia after it had ended 1-1 after extra time.

The Offical End of the Season
4 Feb - Peter Rea writes a piece that is stock full of popular misconceptions, errors and false conclusions it is impossible to name them all. But his response to the fruitless transfer window likely sums up the feelings of so many who placed all their hopes and dreams on this missed opportunity. Responses

Moyes accuses FA of victimization
4 Feb - David Moyes has accused the Football Association's compliance unit of "victimising" Everton after Duncan Ferguson was charged with violent conduct for an alleged shove on Wigan Athletic's Pascal Chimbonda following the striker's dismissal at the JJB Stadium on Tuesday.

F E A R For everything a reason
4 Feb - More introspection and navel-gazing from John Audsley, who looks back over the various factors that he believes have influenced the current money situation at Everton.

The new Edward and Mrs Simpson
4 Feb - That's Biffa and Bill, according to Stephen Guy, who reviews the tenure of Everton's senior off-the-field executives, and reaches a depressing conclusion.

Moyes accuses FA of victimisation
3 Feb - David Moyes has hit out at the FA's compliance unit after they slapped a further three-game ban on the controversial Scot for an alleged shove on Wigan's Pascal Chimbonda as he left the field following his dismissal for violent conduct.

Academy adds two new faces
3 Feb - 19 year-old Icelandic goalkeeper Thodur Ingason and former Arsenal trainee Kieran Agard have joined the Everton Youth Academy.

Dark transfer-window cloud
3 Feb - I think we all know what happened or didn't happen during the now infamous January Transfer window...

Balance and redress
3 Feb - January was not the month many wished it to be, and opinions have been in full flow as a result. One of our regular Mailbag contributors Gavin Ramejkis provides this critique of the current club leadership.

FA Charge Ferguson
2 Feb - Duncan Ferguson has been charged with violent conduct by the FA Ferguson for an incident that preceeded his red-card dismissal on Tuesday for punching Scharner. Big Dunc shoved his hand into the face of Pascal Chimbonda immediately after the Scharner incident. A six-match ban seems highly likely...

Roberts says he didn't mean it
1 Feb - Jason Roberts ate some humble pie after admitting that the elbowing incident which earned hi a red card on Tuesday night looked worse than it was, and that he had no intention of hurting David Weir

Weir not in forgiving mood
1 Feb - David Weir is refusing to exonerate Jason Roberts following the latest elbow incident involving the Wigan striker in the explosive finale to a 1-1 draw at the JJB Stadium on Tuesday night.


We use cookies to enhance your experience on ToffeeWeb and to enable certain features. By using the website you are consenting to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.